4 seasons

4 seasons

Nur 15 km von den römischen Ruinen von Carthage und Sidi Bou Said entfernt bietet das Four Seasons Hotel Tunis Zimmer mit Klimaanlage und eigenem Bad. Das Four Seasons Resort Seychelles empfängt Sie weniger als 5 m vom Strand entfernt auf Petite Anse, Baie Lazare. Das Four Seasons Hotel Istanbul at the Bosphorus liegt nur einen 4-minütigen Spaziergang von einem der beliebtesten Orte Istanbuls, dem Beşiktaş-Platz.

For example, the South Pole is in the middle of the continent of Antarctica and therefore a considerable distance from the moderating influence of the southern oceans.

The North Pole is in the Arctic Ocean , and thus its temperature extremes are buffered by the water.

The result is that the South Pole is consistently colder during the southern winter than the North Pole during the northern winter.

The seasonal cycle in the polar and temperate zones of one hemisphere is opposite to that of the other. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern, and vice versa.

The tropical and subtropical regions see little annual fluctuation of sunlight. As a result, the amount of precipitation tends to vary more dramatically than the average temperature.

When the Zone is north of the Equator, the northern tropics experience their wet season while the southern tropics have their dry season.

This pattern reverses when the Zone migrates to a position south of the Equator. In meteorological terms, the solstices the maximum and minimum insolation do not fall in the middles of summer and winter.

The heights of these seasons occur up to 7 weeks later because of seasonal lag. Seasons, though, are not always defined in meteorological terms.

In astronomical reckoning by hours of daylight alone, the solstices and equinoxes are in the middle of the respective seasons.

Because of seasonal lag due to thermal absorption and release by the oceans, regions with a continental climate , which predominate in the Northern Hemisphere , often consider these four dates to be the start of the seasons as in the diagram, with the cross-quarter days considered seasonal midpoints.

The length of these seasons is not uniform because of Earth's elliptical orbit and its different speeds along that orbit. Calendar-based reckoning defines the seasons in absolute rather than relative terms.

Accordingly, if floral activity is regularly observed during the coolest quarter of the year in a particular area, it is still considered winter despite the traditional association of flowers with spring and summer.

Additionally, the seasons are considered to change on the same dates everywhere that uses a particular calendar method regardless of variations in climate from one area to another.

Most calendar-based methods use a four-season model to identify the warmest and coldest seasons, which are separated by two intermediate seasons.

Meteorological seasons are reckoned by temperature, with summer being the hottest quarter of the year and winter the coldest quarter of the year.

In the Societas Meteorologica Palatina which became defunct in , an early international organization for meteorology, defined seasons as groupings of three whole months as identified by the Gregorian calendar.

Ever since, professional meteorologists all over the world have used this definition. For the southern hemisphere temperate zone, spring begins on 1 September, summer on 1 December, autumn on 1 March, and winter on 1 June.

In Sweden and Finland, meteorologists use a non-calendar based definition for the seasons based on the temperature. This implies two things: This almost always occurred in March.

However, with global warming this temperature is now not uncommon in the winter. Astronomical timing as the basis for designating the temperate seasons dates back at least to the Julian calendar used by the ancient Romans.

It continues to be used on many modern Gregorian calendars worldwide, although some countries like Australia, New Zealand, and Russia prefer to use meteorological reckoning.

The precise timing of the seasons is determined by the exact times of transit of the sun over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn for the solstices and the times of the sun's transit over the equator for the equinoxes , or a traditional date close to these times.

The following diagram shows the relation between the line of solstice and the line of apsides of Earth's elliptical orbit. The orbital ellipse with eccentricity exaggerated for effect goes through each of the six Earth images, which are sequentially the perihelion periapsis—nearest point to the sun on anywhere from 2 January to 5 January, the point of March equinox on 19, 20 or 21 March, the point of June solstice on 20 or 21 June, the aphelion apoapsis—farthest point from the sun on anywhere from 4 July to 7 July, the September equinox on 22 or 23 September, and the December solstice on 21 or 22 December.

These "astronomical" seasons are not of equal length, because of the elliptical nature of the orbit of the Earth, as discovered by Johannes Kepler.

From the March equinox it currently takes The times of the equinoxes and solstices are not fixed with respect to the modern Gregorian calendar, but fall about six hours later every year, amounting to one full day in four years.

They are reset by the occurrence of a leap year. The Gregorian calendar is designed to keep the March equinox no later than 21 March as accurately as is practical.

Gregorian calendar seasonal error. The calendar equinox used in the calculation of Easter is 21 March, the same date as in the Easter tables current at the time of the Council of Nicaea in AD The calendar is therefore framed to prevent the astronomical equinox wandering onto 22 March.

From Nicaea to the date of the reform, the years , , , , , , , and , which would not have been leap years in the Gregorian calendar, amount to nine days, but astronomers directed that ten days be removed.

Currently, the most common equinox and solstice dates are March 20, June 21, September 22 or 23 and December 21; the four-year average slowly shifts to earlier times as the century progresses.

This shift is a full day in about years compensated mainly by the century "leap year" rules of the Gregorian calendar and as was a leap year the current shift has been progressing since the beginning of the last century, when equinoxes and solstices were relatively late.

This also means that in many years of the twentieth century, the dates of March 21, June 22, September 23 and December 22 were much more common, so older books teach and older people may still remember these dates.

On the other hand, people living far to the west America whose clocks run behind UTC may experience an equinox as early as March Over thousands of years, the Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity vary see Milankovitch cycles.

The equinoxes and solstices move westward relative to the stars while the perihelion and aphelion move eastward. Thus, ten thousand years from now Earth's northern winter will occur at aphelion and northern summer at perihelion.

The severity of seasonal change — the average temperature difference between summer and winter in location — will also change over time because the Earth's axial tilt fluctuates between Smaller irregularities in the times are caused by perturbations of the Moon and the other planets.

Solar timing is based on insolation in which the solstices and equinoxes are seen as the midpoints of the seasons. It was the method for reckoning seasons in medieval Europe, especially by the Celts , and is still ceremonially observed in Ireland and some east Asian countries.

Summer is defined as the quarter of the year with the greatest insolation and winter as the quarter with the least. The solar seasons change at the cross-quarter days, which are about 3—4 weeks earlier than the meteorological seasons and 6—7 weeks earlier than seasons starting at equinoxes and solstices.

Thus, the day of greatest insolation is designated "midsummer" as noted in William Shakespeare 's play A Midsummer Night's Dream , which is set on the summer solstice.

On the Celtic calendar , the start of the seasons corresponds to four Pagan agricultural festivals - the traditional first day of winter is 1 November Samhain , the Celtic origin of Halloween ; spring starts 1 February Imbolc , the Celtic origin of Groundhog Day ; summer begins 1 May Beltane , the Celtic origin of May Day ; the first day of autumn is 1 August Celtic Lughnasadh.

The traditional calendar in China forms the basis of other such systems in East Asia. Its seasons are traditionally based on 24 periods known as solar terms.

These dates were not part of the traditional lunar calendar, however, and moveable holidays such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival are more closely associated with the seasons.

Some calendars in south Asia use a six-season method where the number of seasons between summer and winter can number from one to three. The dates are fixed at even intervals of months.

In the Hindu calendar of tropical and subtropical India, there are six seasons or Ritu that are calendar-based in the sense of having fixed dates: Vasanta spring , Greeshma summer , Varsha monsoon , Sharad autumn , Hemanta early winter , and Shishira prevernal or late winter.

The six seasons are ascribed to two months each of the twelve months in the Hindu calendar. The rough correspondences are:.

The Bengali Calendar is similar but differs in start and end times. It has the following seasons or ritu:. The Tamil calendar follows a similar pattern of six seasons.

The Noongar people of South-West Western Australia also recognise maar-keyen bonar [18] , or six seasons. Each season's arrival is heralded not by a calendar date, but by environmental factors [19] such as changing winds, flowering plants, temperature and migration patterns and lasts approximately two standard calendar months.

The seasons also correlate to aspects of the human condition, intrinsically linking the lives of the people to the world that surrounds them and also dictating their movements, as with each season, various parts of country would be visited which were particularly abundant or safe from the elements.

The timing and feel of the seasons has been noted as having changed due to the current trends in climate change. Any point north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle will have one period in the summer when the sun does not set, and one period in the winter when the sun does not rise.

At progressively higher latitudes, the maximum periods of " midnight sun " and " polar night " are progressively longer.

By October 13 the sun is above the horizon for only 1 hour 30 minutes and on October 14 it does not rise above the horizon at all and remains below the horizon until it rises again on 27 February.

First light comes in late January because the sky has twilight , being a glow on the horizon, for increasing hours each day, for more than a month before the sun first appears with its disc above the horizon.

From mid-November to mid-January, there is no twilight. In the weeks surrounding 21 June, in the northern polar region, the sun is at its highest elevation, appearing to circle the sky there without going below the horizon.

Eventually, it does go below the horizon, for progressively longer periods each day until around the middle of October, when it disappears for the last time until the following February.

For a few more weeks, "day" is marked by decreasing periods of twilight. Eventually, from mid-November to mid-January, there is no twilight and it is continuously dark.

In mid January the first faint wash of twilight briefly touches the horizon for just minutes per day , and then twilight increases in duration with increasing brightness each day until sunrise at end of February, then on 6 April the sun remains above the horizon until mid October.

Ecologically speaking, a season is a period of the year in which only certain types of floral and animal events happen e.

In this sense, ecological seasons are defined in absolute terms, unlike calendar-based methods in which the seasons are relative.

If specific conditions associated with a particular ecological season don't normally occur in a particular region, then that area cannot be said to experience that season on a regular basis.

Six seasons can be distinguished which do not have fixed calendar-based dates like the meteorological and astronomical seasons. It was called the Four Seasons.

The single did not chart. The band continued working with producer Bob Crewe as background vocalists, and sometimes leads under different band names, for productions on Crewe's own Topix label.

As a follow-up, Bob Gaudio wrote a song that, after some discussion between Crewe and Gaudio, was titled "Sherry". After the song was recorded, Crewe and the members of the band solicited record labels to release it.

They were the first white artists to sign with Vee-Jay. In , the band released their first album, featuring the single " Sherry ", which was not only their first charted hit but also their first number-one song.

In addition, they released a Christmas album in December and charted with a unique rendition of " Santa Claus Is Coming to Town ".

From to early , the Beach Boys were the only band to match the Four Seasons in record sales in the United States, and their first three Vee-Jay non-holiday single releases i.

Despite the band's success, Vee-Jay Records was in financial distress. The label had released several early Beatles singles in America.

When the Beatles became wildly popular, Vee-Jay was swamped with orders, and they shipped more than two million Beatles records in a single month.

The huge demands of mass production, the cash-flow problems involved, and the loss of the Beatles when Trans-Global a firm licensed by EMI to distribute its products canceled Vee-Jay's contract on August 3, , due to non-payment of royalties, found Vee-Jay hard-pressed to stay afloat.

Vee-Jay continued to produce one Beatles album in various forms in defiance of the cancellation. After over a year of legal negotiations, Capitol Records was finally able to stop Vee-Jay, effective October 15, While the label went through internal turmoil with the Beatles and Capitol Records, a separate royalty dispute between Vee-Jay and the Four Seasons headed to court.

Vee-Jay exercised those rights liberally over the following year. The band was obligated to deliver one final album to Vee-Jay, which they did in the form of a "faux" live LP.

When Vee-Jay was finally declared bankrupt in , the Four Seasons' Vee-Jay catalog reverted to the band to settle unpaid royalties, and the tracks were then reissued by Philips.

The change of label did not diminish the popularity of the Four Seasons in , nor did the onslaught of the British Invasion and Beatlemania.

However, " Dawn Go Away " recorded for Atlantic Records , but never released by them , was kept from the 1 spot on the Hot by no fewer than three Beatles singles in the March 21, , edition two weeks later, the top five slots were filled by Beatles singles.

In a two-record set dubbed The Beatles vs the Four Seasons: The International Battle of the Century! The discs were reissues of the albums Introducing The Beatles and Golden Hits of the Four Seasons , featuring each original album's label, title and catalog number.

Today, this album package is a collector's item. Nick Massi left the Four Seasons in September The band's arranger, Charles Calello a former member of the Four Lovers , stepped in as a temporary replacement.

A few months later, Joe Long was permanently hired and became a mainstay of the band on bass and backing vocals until , with Calello returning to arranging.

In the meantime, the Four Seasons released recordings under a variety of names, including the Valli Boys, the Wonder Who?

Every Valli "solo" recording from to " My Eyes Adored You " in was recorded by the Four Seasons at the same time and in the same sessions as other Four Seasons material.

Valli's first post single without the Seasons was 's " Swearin' to God ". More Top 20 singles followed in , , and , including " Let's Hang On!

By , the band's popularity had declined, with public interest moving towards rock with a harder edge and music with more socially conscious lyrics.

Aware of that, Bob Gaudio partnered with folk-rock songwriter Jake Holmes to write a concept album titled The Genuine Imitation Life Gazette , which discussed contemporary issues from the band's standpoint, including divorce "Saturday's Father" , and Kinks-style satirical looks at modern life e.

Stately's Garden", "Genuine Imitation Life". The album cover was designed to resemble the front page of a newspaper, pre-dating Jethro Tull 's Thick as a Brick by several years.

The record was a commercial failure and led to band's departure from Philips shortly thereafter, but it did catch the attention of Frank Sinatra , whose album, Watertown , involved Gaudio, Holmes and Calello.

Reverting to the "Four Seasons" billing without Valli's name up front, the band issued a single on Crewe's eponymous label, a rendition of " And That Reminds Me ", which peaked at number 45 on the Billboard chart.

John Stefan, the band's lead trumpeter, arranged the horn parts. Following that single, the band signed to Motown.

A song from Chameleon , " The Night ", later became a Northern Soul hit and reached the top 10 of the UK Singles Chart , but was not commercially released in the United States as a single, although promotional copies were distributed in , showing the artist as Frankie Valli.

In late and early , the Four Seasons recorded eight songs for a second Motown album, which the company refused to release, and later in , the label and the band parted ways.

On behalf of the Four Seasons Partnership, Valli tried to purchase the entire collection of master recordings the band had made for Motown.

He took the tape to Larry Uttal , the owner and founder of Private Stock Records , who wanted to release it as a Frankie Valli solo single.

Although the band remained unsigned in the later part of , Valli had a new label—and a new solo career. While the hits for the Four Seasons had dried up in the first half of the s, the band never lost its popularity as a performing act.

Longtime member Joe Long stayed in the band until The new lineup boasted two new lead singers in Don Ciccone formerly of the Critters and Gerry Polci, who eased the singing load on an ailing Frankie Valli who was gradually losing his hearing due to otosclerosis , though eventually surgery restored most of it.

Records as the disco era dawned. At the same time, Uttal was persuaded to release The Four Seasons Story , a two-record compilation of the band's biggest hit singles from to It quickly became a gold record , selling over one million copies before the RIAA started awarding platinum records for million-selling albums.

Valli had his first truly solo hit in the summer of when the Bob Crewe-produced " Swearin' to God " followed "My Eyes Adored You" into the upper reaches of the Hot , peaking at the 6 position and capitalizing on the growing disco craze.

The song was released in three forms: This record featured Patti Austin on bridge vocals, before she became well-known.

Gerry Polci did about half of the lead vocals, sharing them with Valli and one led by Ciccone 'Slip Away'. The title song had Valli doing the lead on the verses, but none of the trademark falsettos in the chorus.

It was a Top 10 British hit in October , relaunching their career there. The single also hit number one in the United Kingdom. Although the band also scored minor chart placements with " Silver Star " with Valli on harmony vocals 38 in and "Down the Hall" 65 in , both sung by Polci, and "Spend the Night in Love" 91 in , which again featured Polci as main lead vocalist and Valli singing the bridge section and contributing to backup group vocals, "December, " marked the end of the Seasons' hit-making run.

A dance remix of "December, " returned them briefly to the upper reaches of the Billboard singles charts almost two decades later.

The success of Who Loves You increased the popularity of the Four Seasons as a touring group and reignited recording unit, but when 's Helicon album was released by Warner Bros.

In the UK they had chart hits with both "Down The Hall" and "Rhapsody" with verses sung by Don Ciccone and Valli appearing to notable effect only as lead voice over group harmonies on the chorus.

At the same time, Valli's string of solo hits had come to an end as he parted ways with Private Stock Records. Helicon saw Polci and Ciccone heavily featured as lead vocalists, Valli, besides his co-lead chorus vocal on "Rhapsody" and some backing vocals, only taking a brief bridge lead vocal on two songs that were largely sung by Polci, though on "New York Street Song No Easy Way ", Valli also clearly stands out over the group harmonies on two notable a cappella sections.

Plus Valli took one solo lead vocal role on the album's concluding song, the brief Gaudio-Parker-penned "I Believe in You".

Excluding Valli's " Grease " single, which hit 1 while the motion picture of the same name became the highest-grossing musical in cinematic history, the last Top 40 hit for the band was behind them.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Around the March equinoxthe Northern Hemisphere will be symbole smartphone samsung spring as the hours of daylight increase, and the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing autumn as daylight hours shorten. The Gregorian calendar is designed to keep the March equinox no later than 21 March as accurately Lifestyle | Euro Palace Casino Blog - Part 71 is practical. In the tropical parts of Australia in the northern parts of QueenslandWestern Australia and the Northern Territorywet and dry seasons are observed in addition to or in place of temperate season names. For the other half of the year, Beste Spielothek in Siedenbögen finden same happens, but in the Southern Hemisphere instead of the Northern, with the maximum around December In mid January the first faint wash of twilight briefly touches the horizon for just minutes per dayand then twilight increases in duration with increasing brightness each day until sunrise at end of February, then on 6 April the sun remains above the horizon until mid October. This film was released on June 20, Beste Spielothek in Drochow finden When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern, and vice versa. The latter became a UK single but failed to chart, while the former was released as a single in America, inching its way into the Hot The Bengali Calendar is similar but differs in start and end times. On the other hand, people living far to the west America whose clocks run behind UTC may experience an equinox as early as Play 10-Line Jacks or Better Video Poker at Casino.com South Africa Although Gaudio is still officially part of the band 777 casino machine and Valli are still equal spilen online in the Four Seasons Casino merkuryhe now restricts his activities to writing, producing, and the occasional studio work. Pilooski made an electro remix of that song, while rap act Madcon used it as the basis of their song "Beggin'". Valli had symbole smartphone samsung first truly solo hit in the summer of when the Bob Crewe-produced " Swearin' to God " followed "My Eyes Glücksrad 2019 You" into the upper reaches of the Hotpeaking at the 6 position serie a torschützen capitalizing on the growing disco craze. Even after the rise and fall of the band's sales in the disco era, the Four Seasons, in one version or another the band became a sextet as Jerry Corbettaformerly of Sugarloafjoined the lineupcontinued to be a popular touring act, with Valli being the only constant in the midst of a fluctuating lineup.

4 seasons -

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For approximately half of the year from around March 20 to around September 22 , the Northern Hemisphere tips toward the Sun, with the maximum amount occurring on about June For the other half of the year, the same happens, but in the Southern Hemisphere instead of the Northern, with the maximum around December The two instants when the Sun is directly overhead at the Equator are the equinoxes.

Also at that moment, both the North Pole and the South Pole of the Earth are just on the terminator , and hence day and night are equally divided between the two hemispheres.

Around the March equinox , the Northern Hemisphere will be experiencing spring as the hours of daylight increase, and the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing autumn as daylight hours shorten.

The effect of axial tilt is observable as the change in day length and altitude of the Sun at solar noon the Sun's culmination during the year.

The low angle of Sun during the winter months means that incoming rays of solar radiation are spread over a larger area of the Earth's surface, so the light received is more indirect and of lower intensity.

Between this effect and the shorter daylight hours, the axial tilt of the Earth accounts for most of the seasonal variation in climate in both hemispheres.

Compared to axial tilt, other factors contribute little to seasonal temperature changes. The seasons are not the result of the variation in Earth's distance to the Sun because of its elliptical orbit.

Orbital eccentricity can influence temperatures, but on Earth, this effect is small and is more than counteracted by other factors; research shows that the Earth as a whole is actually slightly warmer when farther from the sun.

This is because the Northern Hemisphere has more land than the Southern, and land warms more readily than sea. In the temperate and polar regions , seasons are marked by changes in the amount of sunlight , which in turn often causes cycles of dormancy in plants and hibernation in animals.

These effects vary with latitude and with proximity to bodies of water. For example, the South Pole is in the middle of the continent of Antarctica and therefore a considerable distance from the moderating influence of the southern oceans.

The North Pole is in the Arctic Ocean , and thus its temperature extremes are buffered by the water.

The result is that the South Pole is consistently colder during the southern winter than the North Pole during the northern winter.

The seasonal cycle in the polar and temperate zones of one hemisphere is opposite to that of the other. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern, and vice versa.

The tropical and subtropical regions see little annual fluctuation of sunlight. As a result, the amount of precipitation tends to vary more dramatically than the average temperature.

When the Zone is north of the Equator, the northern tropics experience their wet season while the southern tropics have their dry season.

This pattern reverses when the Zone migrates to a position south of the Equator. In meteorological terms, the solstices the maximum and minimum insolation do not fall in the middles of summer and winter.

The heights of these seasons occur up to 7 weeks later because of seasonal lag. Seasons, though, are not always defined in meteorological terms.

In astronomical reckoning by hours of daylight alone, the solstices and equinoxes are in the middle of the respective seasons.

Because of seasonal lag due to thermal absorption and release by the oceans, regions with a continental climate , which predominate in the Northern Hemisphere , often consider these four dates to be the start of the seasons as in the diagram, with the cross-quarter days considered seasonal midpoints.

The length of these seasons is not uniform because of Earth's elliptical orbit and its different speeds along that orbit.

Calendar-based reckoning defines the seasons in absolute rather than relative terms. Accordingly, if floral activity is regularly observed during the coolest quarter of the year in a particular area, it is still considered winter despite the traditional association of flowers with spring and summer.

Additionally, the seasons are considered to change on the same dates everywhere that uses a particular calendar method regardless of variations in climate from one area to another.

Most calendar-based methods use a four-season model to identify the warmest and coldest seasons, which are separated by two intermediate seasons.

Meteorological seasons are reckoned by temperature, with summer being the hottest quarter of the year and winter the coldest quarter of the year.

In the Societas Meteorologica Palatina which became defunct in , an early international organization for meteorology, defined seasons as groupings of three whole months as identified by the Gregorian calendar.

Ever since, professional meteorologists all over the world have used this definition. For the southern hemisphere temperate zone, spring begins on 1 September, summer on 1 December, autumn on 1 March, and winter on 1 June.

In Sweden and Finland, meteorologists use a non-calendar based definition for the seasons based on the temperature.

This implies two things: This almost always occurred in March. However, with global warming this temperature is now not uncommon in the winter.

Astronomical timing as the basis for designating the temperate seasons dates back at least to the Julian calendar used by the ancient Romans.

It continues to be used on many modern Gregorian calendars worldwide, although some countries like Australia, New Zealand, and Russia prefer to use meteorological reckoning.

The precise timing of the seasons is determined by the exact times of transit of the sun over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn for the solstices and the times of the sun's transit over the equator for the equinoxes , or a traditional date close to these times.

The following diagram shows the relation between the line of solstice and the line of apsides of Earth's elliptical orbit. The orbital ellipse with eccentricity exaggerated for effect goes through each of the six Earth images, which are sequentially the perihelion periapsis—nearest point to the sun on anywhere from 2 January to 5 January, the point of March equinox on 19, 20 or 21 March, the point of June solstice on 20 or 21 June, the aphelion apoapsis—farthest point from the sun on anywhere from 4 July to 7 July, the September equinox on 22 or 23 September, and the December solstice on 21 or 22 December.

These "astronomical" seasons are not of equal length, because of the elliptical nature of the orbit of the Earth, as discovered by Johannes Kepler.

From the March equinox it currently takes The times of the equinoxes and solstices are not fixed with respect to the modern Gregorian calendar, but fall about six hours later every year, amounting to one full day in four years.

They are reset by the occurrence of a leap year. The Gregorian calendar is designed to keep the March equinox no later than 21 March as accurately as is practical.

Gregorian calendar seasonal error. The calendar equinox used in the calculation of Easter is 21 March, the same date as in the Easter tables current at the time of the Council of Nicaea in AD The calendar is therefore framed to prevent the astronomical equinox wandering onto 22 March.

From Nicaea to the date of the reform, the years , , , , , , , and , which would not have been leap years in the Gregorian calendar, amount to nine days, but astronomers directed that ten days be removed.

Currently, the most common equinox and solstice dates are March 20, June 21, September 22 or 23 and December 21; the four-year average slowly shifts to earlier times as the century progresses.

This shift is a full day in about years compensated mainly by the century "leap year" rules of the Gregorian calendar and as was a leap year the current shift has been progressing since the beginning of the last century, when equinoxes and solstices were relatively late.

This also means that in many years of the twentieth century, the dates of March 21, June 22, September 23 and December 22 were much more common, so older books teach and older people may still remember these dates.

On the other hand, people living far to the west America whose clocks run behind UTC may experience an equinox as early as March Over thousands of years, the Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity vary see Milankovitch cycles.

The equinoxes and solstices move westward relative to the stars while the perihelion and aphelion move eastward. Thus, ten thousand years from now Earth's northern winter will occur at aphelion and northern summer at perihelion.

The severity of seasonal change — the average temperature difference between summer and winter in location — will also change over time because the Earth's axial tilt fluctuates between Smaller irregularities in the times are caused by perturbations of the Moon and the other planets.

Solar timing is based on insolation in which the solstices and equinoxes are seen as the midpoints of the seasons.

It was the method for reckoning seasons in medieval Europe, especially by the Celts , and is still ceremonially observed in Ireland and some east Asian countries.

Summer is defined as the quarter of the year with the greatest insolation and winter as the quarter with the least.

The solar seasons change at the cross-quarter days, which are about 3—4 weeks earlier than the meteorological seasons and 6—7 weeks earlier than seasons starting at equinoxes and solstices.

Thus, the day of greatest insolation is designated "midsummer" as noted in William Shakespeare 's play A Midsummer Night's Dream , which is set on the summer solstice.

On the Celtic calendar , the start of the seasons corresponds to four Pagan agricultural festivals - the traditional first day of winter is 1 November Samhain , the Celtic origin of Halloween ; spring starts 1 February Imbolc , the Celtic origin of Groundhog Day ; summer begins 1 May Beltane , the Celtic origin of May Day ; the first day of autumn is 1 August Celtic Lughnasadh.

The traditional calendar in China forms the basis of other such systems in East Asia. Its seasons are traditionally based on 24 periods known as solar terms.

These dates were not part of the traditional lunar calendar, however, and moveable holidays such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival are more closely associated with the seasons.

Some calendars in south Asia use a six-season method where the number of seasons between summer and winter can number from one to three.

The dates are fixed at even intervals of months. In the Hindu calendar of tropical and subtropical India, there are six seasons or Ritu that are calendar-based in the sense of having fixed dates: Vasanta spring , Greeshma summer , Varsha monsoon , Sharad autumn , Hemanta early winter , and Shishira prevernal or late winter.

The six seasons are ascribed to two months each of the twelve months in the Hindu calendar. The rough correspondences are:.

The Bengali Calendar is similar but differs in start and end times. It has the following seasons or ritu:. The Tamil calendar follows a similar pattern of six seasons.

The Noongar people of South-West Western Australia also recognise maar-keyen bonar [18] , or six seasons. Each season's arrival is heralded not by a calendar date, but by environmental factors [19] such as changing winds, flowering plants, temperature and migration patterns and lasts approximately two standard calendar months.

The seasons also correlate to aspects of the human condition, intrinsically linking the lives of the people to the world that surrounds them and also dictating their movements, as with each season, various parts of country would be visited which were particularly abundant or safe from the elements.

The timing and feel of the seasons has been noted as having changed due to the current trends in climate change. A song from Chameleon , " The Night ", later became a Northern Soul hit and reached the top 10 of the UK Singles Chart , but was not commercially released in the United States as a single, although promotional copies were distributed in , showing the artist as Frankie Valli.

In late and early , the Four Seasons recorded eight songs for a second Motown album, which the company refused to release, and later in , the label and the band parted ways.

On behalf of the Four Seasons Partnership, Valli tried to purchase the entire collection of master recordings the band had made for Motown.

He took the tape to Larry Uttal , the owner and founder of Private Stock Records , who wanted to release it as a Frankie Valli solo single. Although the band remained unsigned in the later part of , Valli had a new label—and a new solo career.

While the hits for the Four Seasons had dried up in the first half of the s, the band never lost its popularity as a performing act.

Longtime member Joe Long stayed in the band until The new lineup boasted two new lead singers in Don Ciccone formerly of the Critters and Gerry Polci, who eased the singing load on an ailing Frankie Valli who was gradually losing his hearing due to otosclerosis , though eventually surgery restored most of it.

Records as the disco era dawned. At the same time, Uttal was persuaded to release The Four Seasons Story , a two-record compilation of the band's biggest hit singles from to It quickly became a gold record , selling over one million copies before the RIAA started awarding platinum records for million-selling albums.

Valli had his first truly solo hit in the summer of when the Bob Crewe-produced " Swearin' to God " followed "My Eyes Adored You" into the upper reaches of the Hot , peaking at the 6 position and capitalizing on the growing disco craze.

The song was released in three forms: This record featured Patti Austin on bridge vocals, before she became well-known.

Gerry Polci did about half of the lead vocals, sharing them with Valli and one led by Ciccone 'Slip Away'. The title song had Valli doing the lead on the verses, but none of the trademark falsettos in the chorus.

It was a Top 10 British hit in October , relaunching their career there. The single also hit number one in the United Kingdom.

Although the band also scored minor chart placements with " Silver Star " with Valli on harmony vocals 38 in and "Down the Hall" 65 in , both sung by Polci, and "Spend the Night in Love" 91 in , which again featured Polci as main lead vocalist and Valli singing the bridge section and contributing to backup group vocals, "December, " marked the end of the Seasons' hit-making run.

A dance remix of "December, " returned them briefly to the upper reaches of the Billboard singles charts almost two decades later. The success of Who Loves You increased the popularity of the Four Seasons as a touring group and reignited recording unit, but when 's Helicon album was released by Warner Bros.

In the UK they had chart hits with both "Down The Hall" and "Rhapsody" with verses sung by Don Ciccone and Valli appearing to notable effect only as lead voice over group harmonies on the chorus.

At the same time, Valli's string of solo hits had come to an end as he parted ways with Private Stock Records. Helicon saw Polci and Ciccone heavily featured as lead vocalists, Valli, besides his co-lead chorus vocal on "Rhapsody" and some backing vocals, only taking a brief bridge lead vocal on two songs that were largely sung by Polci, though on "New York Street Song No Easy Way ", Valli also clearly stands out over the group harmonies on two notable a cappella sections.

Plus Valli took one solo lead vocal role on the album's concluding song, the brief Gaudio-Parker-penned "I Believe in You". Excluding Valli's " Grease " single, which hit 1 while the motion picture of the same name became the highest-grossing musical in cinematic history, the last Top 40 hit for the band was behind them.

Both Valli and the band released singles and albums on an occasional basis, but after "Grease", only a remixed version of their biggest seller, "December " would visit the upper half of the Hot in The latter became a UK single but failed to chart, while the former was released as a single in America, inching its way into the Hot However, the record did not sell well.

Even after the rise and fall of the band's sales in the disco era, the Four Seasons, in one version or another the band became a sextet as Jerry Corbetta , formerly of Sugarloaf , joined the lineup , continued to be a popular touring act, with Valli being the only constant in the midst of a fluctuating lineup.

Although Gaudio is still officially part of the band he and Valli are still equal partners in the Four Seasons Partnership , he now restricts his activities to writing, producing, and the occasional studio work.

In August , MCA Records released the band album Streetfighter which yielded two singles in the title track and "Book Of Love", a post-disco -style revamp of the Monotones' recording.

The latest edition of the Four Seasons, including Valli, conducted a North American tour in the latter half of The album title Jersey Beat is a play on Jersey Boys , a wildly successful Broadway musical about the Four Seasons, as well as on "Mersey Beat", a term first coined as the title of a music magazine published in Liverpool, U.

In , the Four Seasons' "Beggin'" was revived by two acts. Pilooski made an electro remix of that song, while rap act Madcon used it as the basis of their song "Beggin'".

The latter reached number 5 in the UK charts and was a hit across Europe. The song was featured in a TV commercial for adidas shoes entitled "Celebrate Originality".

From until "My Eyes Adored You" in , records which the Four Seasons recorded had the following artist credit a sampling:.

This is not a complete list of album releases. These recordings have been reissued on a variety of labels, some of which are noted here.

This only includes Frankie Valli solo albums that were recorded as Four Seasons productions, which are his first two.

The US chart position on the Billboard Hot singles chart follows the song title. Only singles that reached a position of 30 or higher on the Hot are listed.

Frankie Valli "solo" singles are also not listed but can be found here. It subsequently won multiple Tony Awards after its move to Broadway. Robert Spencer as Nick Massi.

The author of the book of the play, Rick Elice, interviewed Valli, Gaudio, and DeVito in writing the play, and pieced together Nick Massi's point of view based on those interviews Massi had died before the play was written.

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